Three Hmong-Mien languages are spoken in the north.
In the isolated inland areas of the south, there are about 1,000 forest-dwelling peoples referred to as Orang Asli in Malay. Thai is a Daic language in the southwestern Tai group.
Smaller ethnic groups are scattered throughout the country, especially in the north and the northeast.
Bangkok has been the capital since the late eighteenth century, when it replaced the earlier capital of Ayutthaya, which was sacked by Burmese invaders in 1767.
Other Thai groups speak related southern and east-central Thai languages.
Large-scale Chinese migration took place in the nineteenth century.