Missionary Father Pedro Font later described the scene: "...
Rivera entered the chapel with drawn sword..la espada desnuda en la mano." Rivera y Moncada was subsequently excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church for his actions (wikipedia.org).
The earliest documented inhabitants in what is now San Diego County are known as the San Dieguito Paleo-Indians, dating back to about 10,000 B. Different groups later evolved as the environment and culture diversified. Clear and convincing historical records: Most everywhere we find granite boulders in Southern California, we can observe these types of man-made holes, dimples or impressions in the rocks timely reminders of California's original peoples.
It is from one of these groups that the Southern Diegueño emerged at about 3,000 B. The Southern Diegueño are the direct ancestors of the Sycuan Band currently living in Dehesa Valley.... Above: A young California Indian girl demonstraits how her ancestors used the granite boulders as grinding stone tools to prepare food.
MISSION SAN DIEGO DE ALCALA The Mission San Diego de Alcalá pictured in 2008.
This structure is thought to be the fourth Mission San Diego de Alcalá to be built (wikipedia.org).
SAN DIEGO IN THE LATE 1800s: Photographed circa mid-to-late 19th century taken decades after the Kumeyaay had already been ran out of their key ancestral villages and all their prime coastal areas the Webmaster's note: This is the oldest known photograph of San Diego countryside I could locate.
With little to no thought given to hardship of survival, the Kumeyaay were able to turn their thoughts to ways to improve their life. Traditional Kumeyaay food sources such as acorns and pine seeds, for example, were placed in these holes, then smashed and ground into meal using a mano stone tool.
Above: A kumeyaay pre-contact style shelter (aka 'ewaa or hut) is pictured on the Sycuan Indian Reservation, circa 1900.
Right: A large willow grainery is pictured on the Pala Indian Reservation, circa 1910.
The original structure was burned down by rebellious Kumeyaay in 1775.
The Portola expedition and the efforts of Father Junipero Serra were to establish a chain of Spanish missions and military forts (bases) on the West Coast and build good relations with the local indigenous tribes in an old-world effort to gain their cooperation in finding the fabled cities of gold so their untold wealth could be plundered for Spain and personal gain.